Valuta

Valuta je jedinica razmjene, koja olakšava transfer roba i usluga. Valutna zona je država ili regija u kojoj je određena valuta dominantno sredstvo razmjene. Kako bi se olakšala trgovina između valutnih zona, postoje tečajevi, odnosno cijene po kojima se pojedine valute razmijenjuju jedna za drugu.

U pravilu, svaka zemlja ima monopol nad svojom jedinstvenom valutom, koja je pod kontrolom središnje banke, ali ima i iznimaka od ovog pravila. Nekoliko zemalja koristiti isto ime valuta, npr. australski, kanadski ili američki dolar, zatim, nekoliko zemalja koristi istu valutu (npr. eura), odnosno država može proglasiti valutu druge zemlje ili regije kao svoje zakonsko sredstvo plaćanja ( npr. Panama i USD ili Crna Gora i Euro)
Svaka valuta obično ima svoje manje vrijednosti, često mjerene u 1 / 100 od glavnih valuta: 100 centi s = 1 dolar, 100 lipa= 1 kuna.

Povijest valuta usko slijedi povijest novca. Iako se bilo koji oblik novca može smatrati valutom, termin se obično primjenjuje na standardizirani novac, i monetarnog sustava koji se razvio iz njega.

Prije uvođenja standardiziranog novca, izračunavanje vrijednosti metalnog novca odvijalo se u nekoliko koraka. Prvo se metal testirao po kvaliteti, zatim po težini, da bi vrijednost novca bila umnožak kvalitete i težine. Tako ako je netko napravio leguru zlata i olova (česta mjera varanja), tada bi se težina umnožila sa postotkom zlata u leguri da se dobije vrijednost.

Zlatnici su uvedene radi pojednostavljivanja ovog procesa te radi standardizacije kvalitete. Standardizirala se veličina tj. težina zlatnika kao i udio zlata u njima. Mjerenje više nije bilo potrebno jer se uveo i pečat na kovanice koji je bilo teško kopirati.

Kovanice su donijele još bolju standardizacije to uvele valutni sustav na višu razinu. Zlato se tada počelo pohranjivati u državnim trezorima, a na temelju njega vlade su izdavale kovanice, a kasnije i papirnati novac. To se smatra početkom zlatnog standarda.

 

 

Država Valuta Šifra
Afghanistan Afghanistan Afghani AFA
Albania Albanian Lek ALL
Algeria Algerian Dinar DZD
American Samoa US Dollar USD
Andorra Euro EUR
Angola Angolan New Kwanza AON
Anguilla East Caribbean Dollar XCD
Antarctica East Caribbean Dollar XCD
Antigua and Barbuda East Caribbean Dollar XCD
Argentina Argentine Peso ARS
Armenia Armenian Dram AMD
Aruba Aruban Guilder AWG
Australia Australian Dollar AUD
Austria Euro EUR
Azerbaijan Azerbaijanian Manat AZM
Bahamas Bahamian Dollar BSD
Bahrain Bahraini Dinar BHD
Bangladesh Bangladeshi Taka BDT
Barbados Barbados Dollar BBD
Belarus Belarussian Ruble BYB
Belgium Euro EUR
Belize Belize Dollar BZD
Benin CFA Franc BCEAO XOF
Bermuda Bermudian Dollar BMD
Bhutan Bhutan Ngultrum BTN
Bolivia Boliviano BOB
Bosnia-Herzegovina Marka BAM
Botswana Botswana Pula BWP
Bouvet Island Norwegian Krone NOK
Brazil Brazilian Real BRL
British Indian Ocean Territory US Dollar USD
Brunei Darussalam Brunei Dollar BND
Bulgaria Bulgarian Lev BGL
Burkina Faso CFA Franc BCEAO XOF
Burundi Burundi Franc BIF
Cambodia Kampuchean Riel KHR
Cameroon CFA Franc BEAC XAF
Canada Canadian Dollar CAD
Cape Verde Cape Verde Escudo CVE
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands Dollar KYD
Central African Republic CFA Franc BEAC XAF
Chad CFA Franc BEAC XAF
Chile Chilean Peso CLP
China Yuan Renminbi CNY
Christmas Island Australian Dollar AUD
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Australian Dollar AUD
Colombia Colombian Peso COP
Comoros Comoros Franc KMF
Congo CFA Franc BEAC XAF
Congo, Dem. Republic Francs CDF
Cook Islands New Zealand Dollar NZD
Costa Rica Costa Rican Colon CRC
Hrvatska Hrvatska Kuna HRK
Cuba Cuban Peso CUP
Cyprus Cyprus Pound CYP
Czech Rep. Czech Koruna CZK
Denmark Danish Krone DKK
Djibouti Djibouti Franc DJF
Dominica East Caribbean Dollar XCD
Dominican Republic Dominican Peso DOP
Ecuador Ecuador Sucre ECS
Egypt Egyptian Pound EGP
El Salvador El Salvador Colon SVC
Equatorial Guinea CFA Franc BEAC XAF
Eritrea Eritrean Nakfa ERN
Estonia Estonian Kroon EEK
Ethiopia Ethiopian Birr ETB
European Union Euro EUR
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands Pound FKP
Faroe Islands Danish Krone DKK
Fiji Fiji Dollar FJD
Finland Euro EUR
France Euro EUR
French Guiana Euro EUR
French Southern Territories Euro EUR
Gabon CFA Franc BEAC XAF
Gambia Gambian Dalasi GMD
Georgia Georgian Lari GEL
Germany Euro EUR
Ghana Ghanaian Cedi GHC
Gibraltar Gibraltar Pound GIP
Great Britain Pound Sterling GBP
Greece Euro EUR
Greenland Danish Krone DKK
Grenada East Carribean Dollar XCD
Guadeloupe (French) Euro EUR
Guam (USA) US Dollar USD
Guatemala Guatemalan Quetzal QTQ
Guernsey Pound Sterling GBP
Guinea Guinea Franc GNF
Guinea Bissau Guinea-Bissau Peso GWP
Guyana Guyana Dollar GYD
Haiti Haitian Gourde HTG
Heard Island and McDonald Islands Australian Dollar AUD
Honduras Honduran Lempira HNL
Hong Kong Hong Kong Dollar HKD
Hungary Hungarian Forint HUF
Iceland Iceland Krona ISK
India Indian Rupee INR
Indonesia Indonesian Rupiah IDR
Iran Iranian Rial IRR
Iraq Iraqi Dinar IQD
Ireland Euro EUR
Isle of Man Pound Sterling GBP
Israel Israeli New Shekel ILS
Italy Euro EUR
Ivory Coast CFA Franc BCEAO XOF
Jamaica Jamaican Dollar JMD
Japan Japanese Yen JPY
Jersey Pound Sterling GBP
Jordan Jordanian Dinar JOD
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Tenge KZT
Kenya Kenyan Shilling KES
Kiribati Australian Dollar AUD
Korea-North North Korean Won KPW
Korea-South Korean Won KRW
Kuwait Kuwaiti Dinar KWD
Kyrgyzstan Som KGS
Laos Lao Kip LAK
Latvia Latvian Lats LVL
Lebanon Lebanese Pound LBP
Lesotho Lesotho Loti LSL
Liberia Liberian Dollar LRD
Libya Libyan Dinar LYD
Liechtenstein Swiss Franc CHF
Lithuania Lithuanian Litas LTL
Luxembourg Euro EUR
Macau Macau Pataca MOP
Macedonia Denar MKD
Madagascar Malagasy Franc MGF
Malawi Malawi Kwacha MWK
Malaysia Malaysian Ringgit MYR
Maldives Maldive Rufiyaa MVR
Mali CFA Franc BCEAO XOF
Malta Maltese Lira MTL
Marshall Islands US Dollar USD
Martinique (French) Euro EUR
Mauritania Mauritanian Ouguiya MRO
Mauritius Mauritius Rupee MUR
Mayotte Euro EUR
Mexico Mexican Nuevo Peso MXN
Micronesia US Dollar USD
Moldova Moldovan Leu MDL
Monaco Euro EUR
Mongolia Mongolian Tugrik MNT
Montenegro Euro EUR
Montserrat East Caribbean Dollar XCD
Morocco Moroccan Dirham MAD
Mozambique Mozambique Metical MZM
Myanmar Myanmar Kyat MMK
Namibia Namibian Dollar NAD
Nauru Australian Dollar AUD
Nepal Nepalese Rupee NPR
Netherlands Euro EUR
Netherlands Antilles Netherlands Antillean Guilder ANG
New Caledonia (French) CFP Franc XPF
New Zealand New Zealand Dollar NZD
Nicaragua Nicaraguan Cordoba Oro NIC
Niger CFA Franc BCEAO XOF
Nigeria Nigerian Naira NGN
Niue New Zealand Dollar NZD
Norfolk Island Australian Dollar AUD
Northern Mariana Islands US Dollar USD
Norway Norwegian Krone NOK
Oman Omani Rial OMR
Pakistan Pakistan Rupee PKR
Palau US Dollar USD
Panama Panamanian Balboa PAB
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea Kina PGK
Paraguay Paraguay Guarani PYG
Peru Peruvian Nuevo Sol PEN
Philippines Philippine Peso PHP
Pitcairn Island New Zealand Dollar NZD
Poland Polish Zloty PLZ
Polynesia (French) CFP Franc XPF
Portugal Euro EUR
Puerto Rico US Dollar USD
Qatar Qatari Rial QAR
Reunion (French) Euro EUR
Romania Romanian Leu ROL
Russia Russian Ruble RUR
Rwanda Rwanda Franc RWF
Saint Helena St. Helena Pound SHP
Saint Kitts & Nevis Anguilla East Caribbean Dollar XCD
Saint Lucia East Caribbean Dollar XCD
Saint Pierre and Miquelon Euro EUR
Saint Vincent & Grenadines East Caribbean Dollar XCD
Samoa Samoan Tala WST
San Marino Italian Lira ITL
Sao Tome and Principe Dobra STD
Saudi Arabia Saudi Riyal SAR
Senegal CFA Franc BCEAO XOF
Srbija Dinar RSD
Seychelles Seychelles Rupee SCR
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Leone SLL
Singapore Singapore Dollar SGD
Slovakia Euro EUR
Slovenia Euro EUR
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands Dollar EUR
Somalia Somali Shilling SOD
South Africa South African Rand ZAR
South Georgia & South Sandwich Islands Pound Sterling GBP
Spain Euro EUR
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Rupee LKR
Sudan Sudanese Dinar SDD
Suriname Surinam Guilder SRG
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands Norwegian Krone NOK
Swaziland Swaziland Lilangeni SZL
Sweden Swedish Krona SEK
Switzerland Swiss Franc CHF
Syria Syrian Pound SYP
Taiwan Taiwan Dollar TWD
Tajikistan Tajik Ruble TJR
Tanzania Tanzanian Shilling TZS
Thailand Thai Baht THB
Togo CFA Franc BCEAO XOF
Tokelau New Zealand Dollar NZD
Tonga Tongan Pa'anga TOP
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago Dollar TTD
Tunisia Tunisian Dollar TND
Turkey Turkish Lira TRL
Turkmenistan Manat TMM
Turks and Caicos Islands US Dollar USD
Tuvalu Australian Dollar AUD
U.K. Pound Sterling GBP
Uganda Uganda Shilling UGS
Ukraine Ukraine Hryvnia UAG
United Arab Emirates Arab Emirates Dirham AED
Uruguay Uruguayan Peso UYP
USA US Dollar USD
USA Minor Outlying Islands US Dollar USD
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan Sum UZS
Vanuatu Vanuatu Vatu VUV
Vatican Euro EUR
Venezuela Venezuelan Bolivar VUB
Vietnam Vietnamese Dong VND
Virgin Islands (British) US Dollar USD
Virgin Islands (USA) US Dollar USD
Wallis and Futuna Islands CFP Franc XPF
Western Sahara Moroccan Dirham MAD
Yemen Yemeni Rial YER
Zambia Zambian Kwacha ZMK
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Dollar ZWD

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